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<<<<1650 - 1699

(T: warm/cold events; R: dry/wet events; S: 'stormy' events)

 Date T R S  Description  Ref:
 1700 - 1749
 first half of 18th C.  It was 'remarkably dry' overall Britain and near continent. Seems to have been notably dry in the London area. Dry years were common, while wet years were few & far between. Only 5 wet summers during this period compared with 16 during the 2nd half.  8
 1700  A dry summer (London/South).  8
 29th(NS): Severe southerly gale [after period of severe frost during first-half of month]; many ships wrecked, trees blown down and buildings damaged in southern England (includes East Anglia).  6, 23
 Very cold: CET = 4.7 deg C. Equal coldest April (with 1837) in that series. (Probably also dry as notably cold spring months tend to be anticyclonic).  CET
(Spring & summer)
 Little rain for several months before May; warm summer (London/South). In the Upminster record (Essex), the rainfall for March was 0.79 ins / 20 mm, & for April, the figure was 0.29 ins / 7 mm.
One of the 10 warmest Julys in the CET record. The value was 18.3degC, being well in excess of +2C anomaly on the all-series mean.
 8, CET
 1702  Waterspout (?) caused damage at Hatfield (Hertfordshire?) on 21st June.
[ Odd report / location for a 'waterspout'! ]
 1703  Very wet from April to July.  8
 The 'Great Storm' of 1703 which commenced on Friday 26th November (old-style, 7th December new-style) was probably the worst ever experienced in England; it is described by Defoe in his work: "The Storm 1703". This storm was associated with a deep secondary depression which swept across Ireland, Wales & central England; it is possible that this secondary developed from a West Indian hurricane which had been off the coast of Florida a few days previously. The gale first blew from the south, then veered to west-south-west and finally to north-west. The southern half of the country felt the full force of the storm and it was worst in London on the nights of Friday 26th November(OS) and Tuesday 30th November(OS), when bricks, tiles and stones flew about with such force, and were so numerous, that none dared venture forth from their homes. After the storm the price of tiles increased by about 300%.
The tidal flood affecting the Thames on Sunday 30th(OS) was associated with this storm, though the tidal storm surge for this event was more significant on the Severn and along the Dutch coast. Twelve warships with 1300 men on board were lost in sight of land, Eddystone lighthouse was destroyed and practically all shipping in the Thames was destroyed or damaged. In London alone, 22 people were drowned, 21 people were killed and 200 injured by falling and flying debris. It was estimated that 8000 people lost their lives in the floods caused by the storm in the rivers Thames and Severn and in Holland. The damage due to the storm and flood in London alone was estimated to be £ 2 000 000.
[ Lamb quotes 'new-style' dates for this event of 7th/8th December 1703.]
Additional notes:
1. Possibly a rejuvinated Atlantic hurricane, this storm produced estimated winds reaching 120mph/104 knots (Lamb estimates 150kn).
2. There was apparently little rain.
3. On the south Wales coast, a tidal surge drove up the Bristol Channel, leaving the port of Bristol in ruins, and the hinterland under water.
4. Considerable structural damage occurred across England & Wales, with large loss of standing timber (much as 1987/Oct). Estimates of total loss of life are around 8000, which makes it much worse than the October 1987 event. The heavy lead on the roof of Westminster Abbey being ripped off and carried well clear of the building. The Eddystone lighthouse (newly built/2nd time) was destroyed, and its designer/builder (Henry Winstanley) was killed as he was on site at the time.
5. The storm dealt a severe blow to Merchant and Royal Navy shipping in the Channel and along the English east coast. For the latter, over 1000 seamen were killed, including many senior RN personnel, and 15 ships. (England was then at war with France).
6. Much salt contamination of inland fields by wind-driven spray/salt-laden winds.
7. The depression (possibly a secondary within the circulation of a parent further north/North of Scotland) approached SW England/Celtic Sea and moved across Wales to Yorkshire (estimated eastward speed ~ 40kn; a factor in the surface wind speeds), with widespread southwesterly severe gales on the 26th, and a rearward surge of strength affected the eastern English Channel during the early hours of the 27th.
8. It is estimated that a very intense pressure gradient developed on it's southern flank, with central MSLP almost certainly below 960mbar (some sources, and Lamb, say possibly 950mbar).
9. During 27th & 28th, this storm caused widespread problems Low Countries, North Germany, Denmark and adjacent areas.
[ NB: the 'stormy' spell had actually started around two weeks earlier, with local damage / loss of shipping reported; for example on the 24th, a storm of such proportions would, if this latter had not occurred, been regarded as the 'major' event of this time. Earlier still, on the 12th, another severe gale affected the English Channel & southern North Sea. The 'final' storm marked the conclusion of the spell.])
 8, Lamb, Wheeler,
 1704  Perhaps the driest year for 20 years .. but not everywhere. A warm summer (London/South).  8
 1705  A dry year; "Mild & Dark" (?) with fogs and close weather during the first half of March 1705.
A dry summer (London/South).
 A 'great storm' affected the south English coast on the 11th August (OSP). Great damage was done to shipping, with many deaths. Onshore, there was considerable loss of / damage to property in the Brighton (Sussex) area.  x
 From Norwich cathedral records . . . "Two great floods in Norwich". (If it is this time of year, suggests events due to heavy / prolonged rainfall rather than severe thunderstorms.)  x
 1707  A dry year (London/South).  8
 July 1707  "Hot Tuesday": many heat-wave deaths in England (temperature details not known .. but must have been 'notable'!!)  6
 1708  The coldest spring, summer & autumn for 47 years, apart from 1698.  8
 1. This was a severe winter: the frost lasted for over three months (December - March) and the temperature fell (location unspecified) to 0degF (or -18degC). A notably foggy period in December 1708 (from 15th to 24th/OSP). The Thames frozen in London. Reputed to have been more severe, and more destructive and continued longer than in any year since 1698. Cold/severe winter, by CET series. (1.2 degC or about 2.5C below all-series mean, which is a lot for the three months as a whole.)
2. For London/Southeast in particular, a cold spell which started on 7th January 1709(OSP) lasted for nearly two months, and it became so cold that the Thames froze over completely, with the usual 'booths & tents' being set up on the frozen surface. (Actually, one report I have found says that the Thames was frozen sufficiently for such 1st-4th January; this would imply that the spell starting 7th was immediately preceded by a 'milder' spell of a few days, with December being cold. Inspection of the CET record has that month as a 'below-average' event, but not exceptionally so, therefore some confusion here.)
(Sounds a bit like 1962/63 with the fog at the start of the episode).
[ Also "probably" the COLDEST winter across Europe (as a whole) in a series starting 1500; combining proxy & instrumental data. (University of Berne / RMetS / 'Weather' 2004) ]
 6, 8, CET
 1709  A wet year.  8
 1710 (January & February)  Very foggy. Dates noted as 19th to 24th January(OSP), & 'in February'. (London/South).  8
  "Lightning strike on 20th May, 1711(OSP) blew a stable block and coach-house apart, killing two men. Glass windows burst outwards and brickwork split in half". There are also reports of a 'violent storm' affecting Nottinghamshire - damaging churches (not sure if this is the same date / synoptic event as above).  (From Richmond & Twickenham Informer)
 December 1713  This month was very mild with a lot of fog and there was thick fog on the 13th.  8
 Possible major gale / storm on/about 1st February (OSP). (Parish Register of Wintringham).  x
 1714  Outstandingly dry: the annual rainfall at Upminster (Essex) was some 11.25 inches (or 286 mm) which is about half of the average during the first half of the 20th century. (These low values were not beaten until 1921 q.v.)
The extended dry weather was noted elsewhere across England & Ireland, and in Ulster, where a 'severe drought' is said to have lasted from 1714 to 1719, it is thought that the adverse conditions for agriculture led to a major migration of Ulster-Scots from there to North America, specifically to Pennsylvania.
 A wet summer. A notably wet summer at Kew Observatory (then in rural Surrey). The anomaly is given by Lamb (in CHMW) as 194% (of 1916-1950 LTA).  1, 8
 Cold / severe winter, by CET series. (0.8 degC). Severe frost from 24th November(OS) to 9th February(OS). Frost fair held on the Thames. The Thames was completely frozen for about two months during this severe winter: a frost fair was held on the river - however, remember that the 'old' London Bridge would have restricted the river flow considerably and allowed such ice to form readily [see note at the introduction to these records]. 25th January: ice on Thames in London lifted by some 14ft (~ 4.3m) by a flood tide but did not break. Much fog 24th to 28th January (temporary mild incursion?); some fog in February.  6, 8, CET
 1716  A dry year - with a dry summer: the Thames so low by September that people walked under the arches of London Bridge. This was apparently caused by a combination of drought, strong winds and low tides.  8
(January &
 Some foggy days in January & February (London/South).  8
 24th/25th December(NS): According to Hubert Lamb, this was 'one of the greatest historically recorded storm disasters on the coasts of the North Sea in terms of loss of life - possibly since the beginning of major dyke building.' About 11 000 people are reported to have died, with the death toll especially high in Germany - there was also a great loss of livestock (90 000 cattle at least). Storm damage/flooding both sides of the North Sea, also on the French side of the Channel - much significant damage to the dykes on the eastern side of the North Sea. (December 1717 was apparently a 'very stormy month', with the sequence of periods of high winds beginning in the last few days of November/NS.)  23
 1718, 1719  Fine summer weather gave a good crop of grapes at Richmond in both years, and the summer of 1719 was claimed to be one of the hottest for some time. Generally warm across the whole of England & Wales (using the CET series), with 1719 notably warm.  8, CET
 "Great losses sustained in Lancashire in December, 1720 by the violent overflowing of the sea". (Diary of Nicholas Blundell). Storm tides (wind-driven surge) had flooded 6600 acres of land, washed out 157 houses, and damaged 200 more. The main areas of damage were on low-lying land at Pilling Moss and Marton Moss near the Fylde Coast and the West Lancashire Moss between Formby & Tarleton. At Ince Blundell sea banks were breached, the River Alt floodgates were broken & more than 100 acres of productive farmland were damaged by seawater (salt contamination). Roads and bridges were also affected, including a public bridge in Great Crosby known at 'Foremost poole bridge' (Far Moss Pool bridge).  x
 October 1722  Exceptionally foggy month (in London) - with fog on 9 days.  8
 1723  Long fine summer but a wet July (London/South).  8
 1724  Severe thunderstorm with hail on the 10th June.  8
 January 1725  Very dry period began 13th: only 15 days with rain at Wells, Somerset over the following three months (to mid-April).  6, 8
 February 1725  Exceptionally foggy month (in London) - with fog on 10 days. Part of a notably dry spell .. see above.  6, 8
 April 1725  25th: beginning of exceptional prolonged wet spell with winds between NW & SW (after a mild winter 1724/25). Rain fell in London on at least 60 out of 75 days between this date and the 8th July.  6
 1725 Summer  Cold summer. Notably cold by CET series. The CET value was 13.1degC, over 2C below the LTA in that series (began 1659), and (as at 2004), the coldest in that series. No grapes (ripened?) at Richmond-upon-Thames (then in a semi-rural Surrey)  8, CET
 September 1725  5th: Beginning of drier weather and a mild autumn after prolonged raininess since April.  6
 1725/26  Severe winter (London/South).  8
 Spring / early summer 1726  On 8th March, River Thames four inches (10 cm) higher than had been known for 40 years, presumably due to high rainfall over England & Wales during the winter / spring.
> Very thundery from end of May to mid-June. There was apparently a major sudden flood at Bruton (Somerset) due to an intense / violent thunderstorm in the early hours of the 5th (OSP), assigned by modern researchers to 15th June (NS). Considerable destruction of housing (not sure what the type of housing would be). The four bridges through the town were either significantly damaged or washed away (again, what construction is not given but one was a 'packhorse' bridge which implies stonework). [latter information from 'Weather', September 2014: Clark.]
> Given the implied wet winter / early spring, then such intense thunderstorms would have caused all sorts of problems - as we know today.
 1727  A dry summer (London/South).  8
 1728  A wet year; a wet summer. In September, fog recorded on 6 days (London/South ?)  8
(Winter &
 Severe winter. Frost & snow from mid-December to end of January. Very backward spring in 1729.(LW) The winter CET value was 1.7degC, which is roughly 2C below the all-series mean, and the spring value at 6.7degC is just over 1C below the mean for that season.  8
 May 1729  Tornado destroyed buildings along track through Sussex & Kent.  6
 A wet summer across England & Wales. The anomaly is given by Lamb (in CHMW) as 169% of LTA (1916-1950).  1
 Three years in a row with remarkably warm Autumn seasons. All three periods (September to November in each year) experienced CET anomalies of around +2degC on the long-term average. In 1729, the September of that year was the warmest such-named month (until 2006) in the CET record (16.6/+3.3C), followed by a near-average October, but a warm November (+2C). With 1730 & 1731, the warmth was consistent across all three months, with November of 1730 having an anomaly of over +3C. These latter two years (1730/1731) experienced the warmest autumns in the CET record until 2006 comprehensively beat them. (q.v.)  CET
 1729, December  Thick fog all day in Richmond (Middlesex) on 12th & 19th December(OSP).  8
 January 1730  1st: a 'great fog' in London - many lives lost; Thick fog 5th to 7th January(OSP).  8
(January &
 The first two months of this year were notably cold, at least across England & Wales, & often very dry. The anomaly for January was -1.3C & for February -1.6C (wrt CET long-period average). For the winter, the anomaly was -1.2C. Noted at the time as a period of 'Great frost'. The temperature in 'London' fell to 0degF (or ~-18degC). Much snow (London/South).  8
 1731 (summer & autumn)  A warm summer & autumn;
Persistently warm period September to November.[ see also general note above re: 1729-1731 ]
 Outstandingly dry - a couple of sites in the southeast of England around London recorded around 14 ins / 356 mm of rain, roughly half modern-day average: started with a great frost. (See above).  8
 1732  Dry summer (London/South).  8
 1733  Dry year; Hot July (London/South): into the 'top-10' of warmest such-named months in the CET series.  8,CET
 1733/34 (winter)  One of the warmest winters (by CET) in the series which began in 1659. Up to 1997, rank=9 Value=6.10; Dec=7.6, Jan=4.3, Feb=6.4 (Others: 1686, 1796, 1834, 1869, 1935, 1975, 1989 and 1990.)  CET
 The westerly or WSW gale of the 8th January(OS) / 19th January(NS), 1735 was, according to contemporary reports, the most violent since the destructive storm of November 1703. The damage in London was considerable; several houses were destroyed, practically every street was covered with tiles, and 36 trees were uprooted in St. James' Park. High winds were reported between midday and midnight on the 19th(NS) over an area that extended from the English midlands to Berlin, and rainfall was also heavy and prolonged over much of this area on the 18th & 19th.  8,
 1735  Flooding at Kingston on the 19th July(OSP).  8
 1735  Severe storm (doesn't say whether 'gale' or thunderstorm) on 24th August(OSP) damaged houses and trees - location not given.  8
 Highest tide for 50 years in the Thames basin on the 16th February(OS), late February in 'new-style' dating: coupled to severe gales and a deep depression, this produced a significant storm-surge which affected much of the east coast (of England), and possibly elsewhere around the North Sea. Significant flooding in Westminster & Whitehall ('two feet through Westminster Hall') and the high waters affected much of the Thames shoreline downstream to the Essex & Kent coasts; serious inundation of low-lying areas across the English Fens and other eastern marshlands was also recorded. The severe gale caused a loss of shipping right around the coasts of the British Isles. An additional factor was high rainfall, which apparently affected large areas of Britain, itself causing extensive flooding. [ Based on various contemporary newspaper entries collated by David Bradbury.]  8, usw
 Another high tide on the 24th December (OS) caused the Thames to flood Westminster Hall. This presumably wouldn't have been notable unless some form of storm-surge was involved. (see also February 1736 above). However, according to Lamb (Ref: 23), another explanation of this event is that the flooding was river-based, due to a high volume of water flowing down the Thames after at least a fortnight of heavy rain and/or snow, and melting of lying snow.  8,
 1736, October  Fog 12th - 19th October.  8
(late Spring & early-mid Summer)
Persistently warm period May to July. By the CET record, each of these months had positive anomalies well in excess of +1C, with June around +1.7C.
 A wet summer (this statement may apply to August only - see below).
 In marked contrast to the above, August 1737 failed to please, with the CET value of 13.8degC being some 2C below the long-term average; this places this August in the 'top-20' of coldest such-named months in that series (began 1659).
A violent gale on the 3rd August (OS) / 14th August(NS) when numerous trees were uprooted and some ships sunk in the Thames: this storm affected south-eastern England & East Anglia (as well as areas on the other side of the North Sea).
 1737  There were two violent gales in 1737; the first on 3rd August uprooted numerous trees and sank some ships in the Thames, and considerable damage was also caused by a second gale on the 1st December (though Lamb/Ref 23, casts doubt on this one).  8, 23
 25th July 1738  During a thunderstorm, hail stones "bigger than walnuts" fell at Uxbridge (Middlesex); house roofs were damaged and several people were injured. Severe hailstorms in many districts; in Hertfordshire & Wiltshire lumps of ice (hail aggregates?) up to 9 inches (circa 23cm) across fell (in a mainly dry summer).  6, 8
 A notably mild winter (Dec/Jan/Feb). Using the CET series, the average was 5.6degC, an approximate all-series anomaly of +2C.  CET
 January 1739  Central Scotland: 25th January new-style (14th old-style) - early hours, a severe gale (similar in type to that of 1968). A great deal of loss of shipping in both Clyde and Forth estuaries. Widespread structural damage in the Glasgow & Edinburgh areas - loss of a great many trees.  23
 1739  A wet, unsettled year. Violent thunderstorm on the 10th September. (NB: in ref. 8, a 'gale' is noted on the 11th September, doing much damage in London - is this the same phenomenon?  8
 October 1739  8th: Beginning of historic winter: East wind set in with frequent frosts.  6
(winter & much of spring)
 This winter was extremely severe and may have been worse than that of 1715/16.
This winter included a notably severe / bitter January and February, both of which were in the 'top-5' of coldest such-named months. Using the CET series, both January (-2.8degC) and February (-1.6degC) had sub-zero mean temperatures, only one of four instances of consecutive 'sub-zero' months (see also 1684, 1878/79 & 1963).
29th/30th December (but Lamb has this as 31st December(OS), thus 11th January(NS)): severe (or 'violent') easterly gale & ice in the Thames damaged shipping considerably; the problem with high winds and sea-ice also affected other ports along the English east coast. Coupled to some very low temperatures, probably below -10degC, many deaths occurred due to exposure. The wind-driven waves along the English east coast did great damage, with the port of Dunwich being badly affected - it had already been disappearing after previous inundations & storms. (see also below **)
The streets of London were clogged with snow and ice, the Thames was frozen for about eight weeks, and Thames shipping and London Bridge were damaged considerably by the ice. Lamb (Ref. 23 notes that there were 'great shortages' of food & other essential supplies for the first seven weeks of 1740 due to the difficulty of shipping negotiating the ice.) According to one report (Rev. W. Derham, Upminster [Essex]) the frost of this winter was the most severe on record and the temperature on 3rd January was down to -11degF (-24 degC). [ NB:at this time, and for at least another 150 years, Upminster was highly rural, & this very low temperature should not be seen as being relevant to a 'modern' London climatology, even if very severe winters were to return; also, the exposure conditions of the thermometer were unlike those of modern climatological stations.]
(** In addition to the prolonged frost (roughly Christmas Eve to mid-February), a violent easterly gale, accompanied by snow, did considerable damage on the 29th & 30th December 1739. The gale and large blocks of drifting ice played havoc with shipping on the Thames; many ships were driven ashore and dashed to pieces.)
12th November: Northerly gale with rain, snow & hail;
26th November: Beginning of longest break in the prevailing E winds of this long, cold winter: many rainy days between 26th November & 4th January (1740) though still rather cold.
A notably dry January across England & Wales (see also 1766). As it was also bitterly cold (see 1. above), this suggests the classic 'Scandinavian/North European' blocking high, with persistent easterly / Polar Continental airmass from snow-covered areas of mainland Europe. At places in East Anglia, it was reported at the time that "3 inches of thick ice formed in just 24 hours": a remarkable feat, though it could have been something like a waterfall, or water overflow etc., rather than 3 inches on top of a still water surface. One report has it that the temperatures were below 15degF (or -9degC), but doesn't say if that is by day, by night etc. The 16th January (contemporary calendar) is noted in particular as being "the coldest day in the memory of man".
Some exceptional snowfalls over Scotland, more especially in January - often with marked drifting. Further south, in the London area, snow (falling) was recorded on 39 days between November 1739 & May 1740. Deep snow fell about Christmas in Norwich, which remained on the ground until March.
This great/severe winter of 1739/40 ended gently on the 9th March. [ see also notes below.]
 6, 8, CET, EWP
 1740-43  One of the worst dry spells of the 18th century. In particular, the years 1741 & 1743 were exceptionally dry.  8
 Heavy snowfall from the harsh winter (see above), remained on the ground until March, when breaking up of the frost, a 'prodigious' flood ensued. The severity of the winter (in Norwich) produced riots, which were not quelled in the city without military assistance and the loss of six or seven lives.  x
 (Following the cold winter - q.v. above) . . . a notably cold season by the CET series: snow fell in London at night 16th / 17th May. On the 31st May this year, moors at Eskdalemuir (Scottish borders) frozen too hard for peat cutting. With the severe winter weather extending well into spring (see below), the shortage of vegetables it caused led to an outbreak of scurvy.
May overall (8.6degC, ~ -2.5C on whole-series mean) was the coldest such named month in the series (ignoring the early part where the record is only to the nearest 0.5C).
[ This was followed by a cold June, with a whole-series anomaly ~ -1.5C ]
 6, CET
 1740 (September & October)  In 1740, London experienced gales on 4th & 7th/8th September(OS), and on 1st November(OS); the gale of 7th/8th September did great damage to shipping, and the gale of the 1st November blew down one of the spires of Westminster Abbey and most of the wall around Hyde Park. It also did great damage up and down the English east coast, with loss of life as well as considerable damage to shipping, port facilities etc.
9th October (or possibly the 1st - calendar style not clear): North wind brought uncommonly severe, early, night frost, after a cold summer: ice on many rivers in England, with snow showers also reported widely. By the 12th October, ice half-inch (circa 1cm) thick in Kent. (This was the coldest October on record).
In the CET series, this October was the coldest such-named month, with a value of 5.3degC, over 4C below the all-series mean, and over a degC colder than the next coldest October in the series, 1817.
 6, 8,CET,
 November 1740  12th: Northerly gale with rain, snow & hail. (In reference 8, we have a date of 1st November?!) If it is the latter, then damage was caused to Westminster Abbey, with one of the spires being blown down.  6, 8
  December 1740  A gale from between north and east (storm-surge?) drove sea water many miles inland and seriously inundated the ancient Suffolk town of Dunwich. The last remnants of the original church were washed away. Large sections of the cliffs disappeared.
Dunwich was at one point a major town/market place in this point in East Anglia, but coastal erosion over the years has reduced it to an insignificant village.
 Notably cold by the CET series: coldest by some margin for the year as a whole.  CET
 January 1741  Heavy thunderstorm with hail on the 25th January in London.
25th: Violent WSW gale in Scotland: widespread damage to buildings.
 6, 8
 June - September 1741  Prolonged heat/drought set in around 12th June and lasted until 2nd September, whence general rainfall. Autumn noted as particularly warm.  6
 1741: autumn & early winter  Foggy from 26th August to 1st September; very foggy from 27th November to 6th December. (all presumably London/South).  8
 Severe frost for about 3 weeks in December; much ice in the Thames.  8
 1743  Great gale in London on 3rd February.
Gale on 27th April held the King (George II) up at Sheerness.
Hailstones as big as nutmegs at Enfield on the 15th July.
 1743 (autumn)  Rather foggy September & October (London/South).  8
 1744  April: Maximum temperature for the month 75degF (24 degC) on the 21st April. [London ??]
August: Violent thunderstorm on 14th August (London).
 1745  A wet summer (London).
Gales from 18th to 20th November (OSP)(London/South?).
 1746 January  Freezing fog 3rd to 6th & 11th to 16th January; Thick fog on 13th & 14th January (London/South).  8
 1746  Hottest day on 18th July - temperature in shade 85 degF (29 degC) [London??]  8
 1747: (August)  The summer of 1747 became progressively warmer, with July circa +1C above average; however, the August was notably warm, with a CET value of 18.3degC (+2.7C on all-series average), and in the 'top-10' of warmest Augusts in that series.  CET
 1747  Thames in flood (no details as yet).  8
 Summer 1748  Hot days in June & July; temperature at 1 pm on 23rd July was 85 degF (29degC). [London??]
12th June 1748: Large hailstones, about 2 inches (50mm) in diameter, did considerable damage to windows and gardens during a thunderstorm.
 1748  Severe frost 11th to 14th November (London/South).  8
 1749  A dry summer. Shade temperature at about mid-day on 2nd July was 88 degF (31degC) [London ??]  8
 1749  Sharp frost on 15th November (London/South).  8
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